Garlic and Leek Recipes

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Garlic/Rosemary Meat Rub

  • 1 tablespoon ground black pepper
  • 1 tablespoon kosher salt
  • 3 tablespoons chopped fresh rosemary
  • 1 tablespoon dried rosemary
  • 8 cloves garlic, minced or pressed through a garlic press
  • ⅓ cup olive oil

Mix ingredients. Rub into meat – steak, pork chops, lamb. Refrigerate about eight hours, then broil, grill or roast.

Garlic Bread Topping

  • 1 cup butter, softened
  • 1 tablespoon minced garlic
  • ¼ cup grated Parmesan cheese
  • 1 tablespoon garlic salt
  • 1 teaspoon Italian seasoning
  • ½ teaspoon ground black pepper
  • ¼ teaspoon ground paprika

Use a mortar and pestle to turn the Italian seasoning into a fine powder. Mix all ingredients well. Spread thickly on sliced bread and broil until golden. If you are really a garlic fan, you can sprinkle very finely chopped garlic over the top before you put the bread in the oven.

Steaks with Garlic

  • 8 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 tablespoon olive oil
  • 1 pinch salt and ground black pepper
  • 2 12-ounce New York strip steaks
  • 12 cloves garlic, peeled
  • 1 cup olive oil for frying
  • 1 pinch salt and ground black pepper to taste
  • 1 ½ tablespoons balsamic vinegar

Whisk minced garlic, olive oil, salt, and black pepper in a bowl, then pour into a resealable plastic bag. Add the steaks, coat with the marinade, squeeze out excess air, and seal the bag. Marinate in the refrigerator for 8 hours or overnight. Combine 12 garlic cloves and 1 cup olive oil in a small saucepan over low heat. Cook, stirring occasionally, until garlic is golden and tender, about 30 minutes. Set aside. Preheat an outdoor grill for high heat, and lightly oil the grate. Remove steaks from bag, wiping off excess marinade with paper towels. Generously season steaks with salt and black pepper. Cook the steaks on the prepared grill until they start to firm and are reddish-pink and juicy in the center, about 5 minutes per side. An instant-read thermometer inserted into the center should read 130°F. Remove steaks to a plate and let rest for 5 minutes. Drizzle balsamic vinegar over steaks, then spoon a few cloves of oil-roasted garlic on top.

Garlic Soup

  • ½ cup crushed garlic
  • 2 tablespoons butter
  • 6 cups home made chicken broth
  • ¼ cup chopped fresh tomato
  • 3 eggs, beaten
  • salt and pepper to taste

In a large pot over medium heat, cook garlic very slowly in butter until brown. Pour in broth and simmer a minimum of 20 minutes. Stir in tomatoes, then slowly drizzle in beaten eggs, stirring gently so the eggs form long silky strands.

Chicken With 60 Cloves of Garlic (adapted from a Martha Stewart recipe)

  • 1 large whole chicken (about 7 1/2 pounds)
  • 1/4 cup unsalted butter, melted
  • 2 tablespoons coarse salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground pepper
  • 1 garlic bulb, halved horizontally
  • 60 garlic cloves (do not peel)

Preheat oven to 425°F. Let chicken stand at room temperature 30 minutes. Remove giblets and excess fat from cavity. Pat chicken dry. Brush outside with melted butter and season with salt and pepper. Place garlic bulb in cavity. Transfer chicken to a roasting pan. Tuck wing tips under; tie legs with kitchen twine. Roast chicken, basting occasionally with pan juices, 20 minutes. Remove from oven, and arrange garlic cloves around chicken. Continue roasting until skin is deep golden brown and an instant-read thermometer inserted into thickest part of the thigh (avoiding bone) registers 165°F, about 1 hour. Transfer chicken and garlic cloves to a platter. Let stand 15 minutes, then remove garlic bulb from cavity, and discard. Carve chicken, and serve.

Garlic Roasted Prime Rib

  • 1 (10 pound) prime rib roast
  • 10 cloves garlic, minced
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 2 teaspoons ground black pepper
  • 2 teaspoons dried thyme

Place the roast in a roasting pan with the fatty side up. In a small bowl, mix together the garlic, olive oil, salt, pepper and thyme. Spread the mixture over the fatty layer of the roast, and let the roast sit out until it is at room temperature, no longer than one hour. Preheat the oven to 500°F. Bake the roast for 20 minutes in the preheated oven, then reduce the temperature to 325°F, and continue roasting for an additional 60 to 75 minutes. The internal temperature of the roast should be at 135°F for medium rare. Allow the roast to rest for 10 or 15 minutes before carving so the meat can retain its juices.

Vichyssoise

  • 3 cups peeled, sliced potatoes
  • 3 cups sliced white of leek
  • 1-1/2 quarts chicken stock or vegetable broth
  • 1/2 to 1 cup whipping cream
  • Salt and white pepper, to taste
  • 2 to 3 tablespoons chives, minced

Simmer vegetables and broth in a partially covered pot for about 40 to 50 minutes. Once the vegetables are tender, you can puree the soup using an immersion blender, or carefully transfer the soup to a high-powered pitcher blender and puree until smooth. Season with salt and white pepper and stir in the heavy cream. Serve warm or cold.

Leek and Potato Gratin

  • 9 medium leeks (about 3 lb; white and pale green parts only)
  • 3 Tbsp unsalted butter
  • 2 lb russet (baking) potatoes
  • 1½ cups heavy cream
  • 1 cup whole milk
  • 2 tsp thyme leaves

Preheat oven to 400°F with rack in middle. Generously butter a 3-qt shallow baking dish. Cut a round of parchment paper to fit just inside a 12-inch heavy skillet, then set parchment aside. Halve leeks lengthwise, then cut crosswise into 1½-inch pieces (you should have about 8 cups). Wash leeks. Cook leeks in butter with ½ tsp salt and ¼ tsp pepper, covered with parchment round, in skillet over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until tender, 10 to 12 minutes. Meanwhile, peel potatoes and slice crosswise 1/16-inch thick with slicer. Transfer to a large heavy pot with cream, milk, thyme, 1 tsp salt, and ½ tsp pepper and bring to a boil over medium heat, stirring occasionally (liquid will thicken). Stir in leeks, then transfer to baking dish. Bake, uncovered, until potatoes are tender, 45 minutes to 1 hour. Let stand 10 minutes before serving. Gratin can be baked 2 days ahead and chilled. Let stand at room temperature 30 minutes, then reheat, covered, in a 350°F oven until hot, about 30 minutes.

Grilled Leeks

  • 4 medium leeks (about 2½ lb.), white and pale green parts only, tough outer layers removed (root ends left intact)
  • 2 Tbsp. sherry vinegar or red wine vinegar
  • 2 tsp. honey
  • 2 Tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil, plus more for drizzling
  • Kosher salt
  • Freshly ground pepper

Prepare a grill for high heat. Rinse off any sand and dirt from leeks and pat dry. Arrange directly on grate (no need to oil) and grill, turning every few minutes with tongs, until outsides are completely blackened (leeks should start to soften and may begin to release some juices), 12–16 minutes.Transfer leeks to a cutting board and let rest 10 minutes (the interiors will continue to steam and get even softer as they cool). While the leeks are resting, whisk vinegar and honey in a small bowl until honey dissolves. Set dressing aside.Cut leeks on a diagonal into 1½”–2″ pieces. Transfer to a medium bowl and toss with 2 Tbsp. oil; season with salt.Transfer leeks to a platter and spoon reserved dressing over. Drizzle with more oil and season with pepper.

Fish Chowder with Leeks

  • 3 leeks, white and pale green parts only, tough outer layer removed
  • 2 Tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil
  • 1 lb. baby creamer (Yukon Gold) potatoes, halved (quartered if larger than 1 1/2″ in diameter)
  • 2 tsp. kosher salt, divided
  • 1 1/2 tsp. freshly ground black pepper, plus more
  • 1 cup pure clam juice
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 1 lb. skinless halibut or cod fillet, cut into 2×1″ pieces
  • 1 cup heavy cream
  • 1 (10-oz.) bag frozen sweet peas, thawed
  • 1 Tbsp. fresh lemon juice
  • Pea shoots (tendrils) or sprouts, basil leaves, finely grated lemon zest, and flaky sea salt (for serving)

Cut leeks into 1/4″ rounds. Rinse, tossing with hands so that leeks separate into individual rings, and drain thoroughly. Transfer to a medium pot. Add oil and toss to coat. Cover pot and cook over medium heat until leeks begin to soften, 5–6 minutes. Add potatoes, 1 tsp. kosher salt, and 1 1/2 tsp. pepper and stir to combine. Add clam juice, bay leaves, and 2 cups water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium-low and cook, uncovered, until potatoes are fork-tender, 10–12 minutes.Season halibut with remaining 1 tsp. kosher salt. Add to pot along with cream and peas and stir to combine. Cook, stirring occasionally, until halibut is opaque, 3–4 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in lemon juice.Divide chowder among bowls. Top with pea shoots, basil, and lemon zest. Season with sea salt and a generous amount of pepper.1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil

Potato Leek Frittata

  • 1 leek (white and light-green parts only), halved lengthwise, rinsed well, and thinly sliced (1 cup)
  • 2 cups cooked, cubed potato
  • Coarse salt and ground pepper
  • 8 large eggs, lightly beaten
  • 1/2 cup part-skim ricotta

Preheat oven to 425 degrees. In a 10-inch ovenproof nonstick skillet, heat oil over medium-high. Add leek and potato, season with salt and pepper, and cook until leek is translucent, about 5 minutes. Add eggs and ricotta, season with salt and pepper, and stir to combine. Cook, undisturbed, until edges are set, about 2 minutes. Transfer skillet to oven and bake until top of frittata is just set, 10 to 13 minutes. Invert or slide frittata onto a plate and cut into 6 wedges. Serve warm or at room temperature.

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Onion Recipes

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Onion recipes, in many cases, treat the onion as more of a supporting player than the star. While there’s nothing wrong with that approach, onions can also take center stage. A cored onion stuffed with sausage makes a satisfying meal. French onion soup is a classic for a reason. Burned onions have a bitter, acrid taste, so keep the heat low enough to gently brown and caramelize for best flavor.

Creamed Pearl Onions

  • 4 cups pearl onions
  • 3 tablespoons butter
  • 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • Dash pepper
  • 3/4 cup chicken broth
  • 3/4 cup half-and-half cream
  • 1/4 cup minced fresh parsley
  • 3 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese

In a Dutch oven or large kettle, bring 8 cups water to a boil. Add pearl onions; boil until tender, 6-7 minutes. Drain and rinse in cold water; peel and set aside. In a saucepan, melt butter. Stir in the flour, salt and pepper until smooth. Gradually stir in broth and cream. Bring to a boil; cook and stir for 2 minutes or until thickened. Stir in the parsley, cheese and onions. Pour into an ungreased 1-1/2-qt. baking dish. Cover and refrigerate overnight. Remove from the refrigerator 30 minutes before baking. Cover and bake at 350° for 15 minutes; stir. Top with pimientos if desired. Bake, uncovered, 10 minutes longer or until bubbly and heated through.

Caramelized Onion & Garlic Pasta

  • 1/4 cup butter, cubed
  • 2 large sweet onions, thinly sliced
  • 1/4 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
  • 1/8 teaspoon salt
  • 8 garlic cloves, minced
  • 2 cups grape tomatoes, halved
  • 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar
  • 1/4 cup olive oil, divided
  • 1 package (16 ounces) uncooked angel hair pasta
  • 9 bacon strips, cooked and crumbled
  • 2/3 cup shredded Parmesan cheese
  • 1/2 teaspoon coarsely ground pepper
  • Fresh basil leaves, optional

In a large skillet over medium-high heat, melt butter. Add the onions, pepper flakes and salt; saute until onions are tender. Stir in garlic. Reduce heat to medium-low; cook, stirring occasionally, for 30-40 minutes or until onions are deep golden brown. Add the tomatoes, vinegar and 2 tablespoons oil to the skillet. Cook pasta according to package directions. Drain pasta; toss with onion mixture. Drizzle with remaining olive oil. Sprinkle with bacon, cheese, and pepper; heat through. Garnish with basil if desired.

Grandma’s Onion Squares

  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 2 cups sliced onions
  • 1 teaspoon salt, divided
  • 1/4 teaspoon pepper
  • 2 cups all-purpose flour
  • 3 teaspoons baking powder
  • 5 tablespoons shortening
  • 2/3 cup milk
  • 1 large egg, room temperature
  • 3/4 cup sour cream

Preheat oven to 400°. In a large skillet, heat oil over medium heat. Add onions; cook and stir until softened, 8-10 minutes. Reduce heat to medium-low; cook until deep golden brown, 30-40 minutes, stirring occasionally. Stir in 1/2 teaspoon salt and the pepper. Meanwhile, in a large bowl, combine flour, baking powder and remaining 1/2 teaspoon salt. Cut in shortening until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Stir in milk just until moistened. Press into a greased 9-in. square baking pan; top with onions. Combine egg and sour cream; spread over onion layer. Bake until golden brown, 35-40 minutes. Cut into squares. Serve warm.

  • French Onion Soup
  • 5 tablespoons unsalted butter, divided
  • 1 tablespoon vegetable oil
  • 3 pounds Vidalia onions (about 4 medium), halved lengthwise, peeled, and thinly sliced
  • 1 teaspoon kosher salt
  • ½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
  • ½ teaspoon granulated sugar1½ cups dry white wine
  • 6 cups homemade beef broth
  • 10 sprigs thyme
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 1 baguette
  • 1 garlic clove, cut in half lengthwise
  • 2 teaspoons sherry, preferably Fino or Manzanilla
  • 4 ounces Gruyère cheese, grated (about 1 cup)

In a large Dutch oven or other large pot, melt 3 tablespoons butter over medium heat. Add the oil and onions; cook onions are until softened, stirring occasionally, about 15 minutes. Add the salt, pepper, and sugar; continue to cook, stirring occasionally, until onions are deep golden brown and caramelized, reducing heat slightly if onions seem to be browning too quickly, 35 to 45 minutes more. Add wine and raise heat to high. Cook until almost all liquid has evaporated, 8 to 10 minutes. Tie thyme and bay leaves into a bundle with twine. Add broth and herb bundle to pot with onions. Bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer, and cook, uncovered, until broth is thickened and flavorful, 20 to 30 minutes. Remove from heat and whisk in remaining 2 tablespoons butter. Taste and adjust seasoning. Heat the broiler. Cut two ½-inch baguette slices for every serving of soup. Place baguette slices on a rimmed baking sheet and toast in oven until crisp and dry but not browned, about 1 minute per side. Rub one side of each toast with the garlic clove and set aside. Place ramekins or ovensafe bowls on a rimmed baking sheet, add ½ teaspoon of sherry to the bottom of each, and ladle soup on top. Top each serving of soup with two garlic-rubbed toasts. Divide cheese among the servings, covering the bread and some of the soup. Carefully transfer baking sheet to oven and broil until cheese is melted and bubbling, 4 to 8 minutes. (Alternatively, if using regular soup bowls: Top each garlic-rubbed toast with some cheese and return to broiler to melt, about 2 minutes more. Divide sherry and soup among bowls, sprinkle with remaining cheese, and top each serving with two cheese toasts.)

French Onion Chicken

  • 2 medium yellow onions, thinly sliced into rings
  • 3 tablespoons butter
  • 1 cup + 3 tablespoons beef broth, divided
  • 4 boneless skinless chicken breasts, pounded to even thickness
  • 1 tablespoon coconut oil
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 teaspoon Italian blend herbs/Italian seasoning – (OR ¼ teaspoon dried basil + ¼ teaspoon dried thyme + ½ teaspoon dried oregano)
  • 2 tablespoons flour
  • 4 slices Provolone cheese
  • 4 slices Swiss cheese
  • ¾ cup Parmesan cheese
  • fresh thyme or parsley and cracked black pepper for topping

Preheat oven to bake at 400°F or broil on low. In a large oven-safe skillet over medium-high heat, melt butter. Add onions and 3 tablespoons beef broth and saute onions for 3-4 minutes until translucent. Continue to cook, stirring occasionally so the onions don’t burn, for about 15 minutes longer until browned and very tender. Use tongs or a fork to transfer to a bowl and cover to keep warm. While onions are cooking, prepare the chicken by drizzling with oil, then seasoning with salt and pepper (to taste) and Italian herbs. Once onions have finished cooking and are removed from the pan, cook chicken for 4-5 minutes on each side (don’t clean out the pan between the onions and chicken) until browned on both sides. (Chicken may not be fully cooked through yet, that is okay). Transfer chicken to a plate and cover to keep warm and return the onions to the pan. Sprinkle flour over the onions and stir for 1 minute over medium-high heat. Add beef broth and continue to cook, stirring throughout, until mixture comes to a boil. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Return chicken to pan and spoon some of the sauce over each piece of chicken. Top chicken with one slice of provolone each, then one slice of Swiss, then 1/4 of the Parmesan cheese. Transfer skillet to your preheated oven and cook for about 10 minutes until chicken is cooked through completely and cheeses are melted. Spoon some of the onions and gravy over the top of the chicken, garnish with thyme or parsley and cracked black pepper, and serve.

Onion Potato Casserole

  • ½ cup coconut oil, butter or lard
  • 8 medium Idaho potatoes, peeled and quartered
  • 2 medium onions, quartered
  • 2½ tablespoons sugar
  • 5 eggs, beaten
  • 1 tablespoon kosher salt
  • 1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
  • Garnish: chopped scallions

Preheat oven to 425°F. Pour oil into a 9- x 13-inch casserole dish. Finely chop onions using a food processor or very sharp knife. Place them in a large bowl. Shred potatoes in a food processor or with a box grater. Add potatoes, sugar, eggs, salt, and pepper to the bowl with the onions. Mix all ingredients together. Place oiled casserole dish in oven and bake for 5 minutes. Carefully remove the pan and swirl the oil around to cover the sides. Pour some of it into the potato mixture. Mix well. Spoon potato mixture into the prepared casserole dish and cook for 1 hour, until the top is golden brown. Cool slightly before serving. Garnish with scallions.

French Onion Potatoes

  • 1 1/2 tbsp olive oil
  • 5-6 medium size potatoes sliced into 1/2 thick half slices
  • 1 large onion sliced
  • 1 stick butter cubed
  • 1 ¼ cups leftover french onion soup
  • 1/2-1 tsp salt
  • crushed black pepper

Preheat oven to 350°F. Drizzle olive oil in a 9×13 casserole dish and spread it to coat the bottom. In a large bowl, mix potatoes, onions, butter, french onion soup, salt, and pepper.Pour into casserole dish. Bake at 350 for 1 hour or until potatoes are fork tender.

Sour Cream and Onion Dip

  • 4 tbsp. butter
  • 2 large yellow onions, thinly sliced
  • 1/4 c. dry sherry
  • 2 tsp. fresh thyme leaves, roughly chopped
  • 1 8-oz. block cream cheese
  • 1/3 c. mayonnaise
  • 3/4 c. shredded Monterey jack, plus more for topping
  • 3/4 c. shredded Gruyère
  • Finely chopped chives, for serving
  • Baguette, for serving

Preheat oven to 350°F. In a large skillet over medium heat, melt butter. Add onion and season with salt and pepper. Reduce heat to medium-low and cook, stirring occasionally, until caramelized and jammy, about 20 minutes. Increase heat to medium-high, stir in sherry and thyme and simmer until almost completely reduced, about 2 minutes. Remove from heat. In a large bowl, stir together cream cheese, sour cream, mayonnaise, and cheeses. Mix in caramelized onions and season with salt and pepper. Transfer to a baking dish set on a small baking sheet and smooth top with a spatula. Top with more shredded cheeses. Bake until bubbly and slightly golden, about 30 minutes. If you’d like the dip to develop a more golden top, broil on high for 2 minutes. Serve with baguette on the side, for dipping.

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Onion and Garlic Varieties

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With the possible exception of ancient Polynesia, I can’t think of any culture that doesn’t use onions and garlic in one form or another. Onions grow well all over the world, having probably originated in Asia and then spread through settlement and trade. They were considered a symbol of eternal life by the Egyptians and have been grown by humans for over 5,000 years. Since there were many places where alliums grew wild, odds are high that even ancient hunter-gatherers included onions in their diet. The bunching onion or scallion group is probably typical of the ancient wild onion varieties and will slowly grow large clumps quite well without human intervention. Not surprisingly, with such a history, varieties are numerous. Here are a few examples in the various groups.

Globe Onions

  • Australian Brown – this is a typical yellow storage onion, but the flavor is much better than anything you’ll find at the grocery. It was introduced by W. Atlas Burpee in 1897. Nice big bulbs and stores well. Intermediate type.
  • Southport White Globe – a long-day classic from Connecticut. Southport, Connecticut, was a major onion-growing area during Colonial times and produced a number of excellent onions. Mild-flavored and one of the best white keeping onions (which means for maybe three months). A Civil War era heirloom. Also known as Silver Ball and White Rocca.
  • Southport Yellow Globe – like its sister above, this one came from Connecticut. It’s equally fine-flavored, but stronger, and is a very good keeper. This one – actually any bulb onion – can be used for scallions at about 65 days.
  • Red Wethersfield – another Connecticut export, but from the town of Wethersfield. These can grow quite large and have excellent flavor. Unlike most red onions, this one keeps well. It’s quite old, tracing back to the 1700s.
  • Texas Early Grano – Texas was one of the first states to really develop short-day onions. The original Grano (grano means wheat in Spanish) seed stock came from Spain. In 1933, the Texas Agricultural Experimental Station began an onion breeding program that produced not only this onion but the supersweet varieties such as the Granex group: Vidalia, Maui Maui and NoonDay. Technically, Vidalia onions can only be called that if they are grown in certain counties in Georgia. The soil in these areas has a low sulfur content, which is why the onions taste sweet. You can grow them but they may not have the same flavor.
  • Walla Walla Sweet – this onion’s ancestors came from Corsica with a French soldier named Peter Pieri in the late 1800s. Although extremely tasty, it will not keep; you’ll be lucky if it lasts a month in storage. It’s best left in the garden and harvested as needed, at least until it goes to seed. Long day type. Great sandwich onion.

Bunching Onions and Scallions

  • He Shi Ko – a Japanese heirloom, it’s perennial and does not form a bulb. This is the sort of onion you’ll see in a grocery store as green onions, but this one has much better flavor. You may also sometimes hear it called a Welsh onion. Overwinters well. It will readily go to seed the next spring and the seed is easy to grow. These will also grow fairly thick stalks if overwintered and can be used in place of leeks.
  • Evergreen Hardy White is another perennial, very hardy, cold tolerant and will overwinter well. A Nebuka or non-bulbing onion of Japanese origin, it has been grown since at least the late 1800s.
  • Tokyo Long White is another Japanese variety and a good choice for those with hot summers. I haven’t been able to dig up anything on its history, although it’s typically listed as an heirloom.
  • Deep Purple – a bit of a misnomer – is really more red or magenta. Some “red” onion varieties have streaks or tints and the colors are dependent on growing conditions or temperatures. This one stays highly colored in all conditions. Not an heirloom, as it’s a newer variety, but it is open-pollinated.

Leeks

  • London Flag Leek – developed from a French variety called Gros-Court, which was notable for a very thick base. This was the most commonly-grown leek in the US for most of the 19th century. Very good flavor.
  • Blue de Solaise Leek – this 19th century French heirloom tastes good and is extremely hardy. Large stalks turn blue-violet when the weather gets cold. William Woys Weaver says of this beautiful leek: “Never forget, the eye eats first.”
  • Elephant Garlic – this is actually a leek variety. It does have more of a mild garlic flavor, however. It produces lots of scapes – the seed stalks – but will not grow from seed, only from bulbs. Most gardeners cut off the scapes and use them in cooking or freeze them. The plant grows a single clove the first year and multiple cloves the second year. Nichols Garden Nursery popularized it shortly after discovering it in the gardens of Czechoslovakian immigrants in 1941.
  • King Richard is an open-pollinated variety that is spring grown and matures in about 75 days. Unlike many other leeks, it does not overwinter well. It has a long shank, which means more of the white part that is generally used in recipes. Some leeks will form a sort-of bulb at the end; King Richard is not one of them.
  • Giant Musselburgh, also known as Scotch Flag (probably because London Flag is a close rel ative) was developed in Scotland and first released sometime in the early 1800s. This is a big leek, sometimes three inches in diameter, with a mild flavor. Although large, they remain tender. It overwinters very well.
  • Jaune du Poitou was described by the famous French seed house of Vilmorin-Andrieux in 1856. William Woys Weaver brought back seeds after a trip to Alsace, France.

Garlic

  • German Red Garlic – German immigrants brought this garlic to the US in the 18th century. It is actually much older, probably tracing back to medieval Europe. A rocambole or hardneck garlic, it may grow up to six feet tall. Wonderful flavor and stores extremely well
  • .Inchelium Red Garlic – this is a softneck, but it stores well, which is a little unusual in a softneck. It was discovered on the Coleville Indian Reservation in Washington. William Woys Weaver calls it one of the best heirloom American garlics. The flavor gets a little stronger as it ages.
  • Spanish Roja – this is a very popular hardneck garlic that stores four to six months. The cloves are large and it peels easily. The flavor has been variously described as spicy, rich, complex, hot and strong. It needs cold winters to do well.
  • California White – the classic grocery store garlic. Although snobby gourmets look down their noses at this one (much as wine gourmets do with “unfashionable” wines) there’s really nothing wrong with it. Well-grown in good soil, it’s an excellent garlic with a decent taste and stores well. It’s also one of the fastest, cheapest ways you can get some garlic to grow and is readily available year-round.
  • Purple Stripe – a group that includes such cultivars as Belarus, Chesnok Red and Persian Star, purple stripe varieties are probably the oldest of the garlics. From a genetic standpoint they are considered to be the closest to the ancient original garlic species, boasting very complex flavors that range from mild to incredibly pungent. Most come from harsh environments in Eastern Europe and Russia with intensely cold winters. Marbled purple stripe garlic, a sub group, includes Bogatyr, Brown Tempest, Metechi and Siberian.

Shallots

Similar to and related to onions, shallots are actually a separate species (allium ascalonium or allium cepa, depending on which source you consult). They grow in clusters like garlic but are shaped more like scallions, sometimes with a torpedo shape. Grown from seeds or bulbs, they will perennialize in many gardens. Probably native to the Middle East, shallots have a flavor that is typically milder than that of regular onions. Good varieties include Griselle or French Gray, Prisma, Yellow, Pikant (very long storage life), Zebrune (a French shallot also known as Cuisse de Poulet du Poitou or “leg of chicken”) and Lorient.

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